The part of a shoe that cover the toes, the top and sides of the foot, and the back of the heel. The upper is attached to the outsole. Depending on the style and purpose of the shoe, the upper of a shoe can be made from a single piece or from many pieces stitched together.
The layer of the sole between the outer sole, which contacts the ground, and the shoe upper. It is made of a variety of materials in order to give the shoe various cushioning, support, and flexibility characteristics. The colors of different materials show the densities—usually, the denser and more supportive polyurethane is gray, while the lighter and more cushioning EVA is white. The more gray, the more support; the more white, the more flexible and cushioned.
Also called simply the “sole”, the outsole is the lower part of the shoe that comes into direct contact with the ground. Soles can be made of a variety of materials, including synthetic leather and rubber. Certain types of outsoles provide more traction than others. For each court surface type, there are different materials and traction designs used.
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